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N Engl J Med ; Comments open through January 8, The hemoglobin threshold for transfusion of red cells in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding is controversial. We compared the efficacy and safety of a restrictive transfusion strategy with those of a liberal transfusion strategy. Full Text of Background We enrolled patients with severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and randomly assigned of them to a restrictive strategy transfusion when the hemoglobin level fell below 7 g per deciliter and Varizen 1 EL a Varizen 1 EL strategy transfusion when the hemoglobin fell below 9 g per deciliter.
Randomization was stratified according to the presence or absence of liver cirrhosis. Full Text of Methods The probability of survival was slightly higher with the restrictive strategy than with the liberal strategy in the subgroup of patients who had bleeding associated with a peptic ulcer hazard ratio, 0.
Full Text of Results As compared with a liberal transfusion strategy, a restrictive strategy significantly improved outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Full Text of Discussion Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common emergency condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Transfusion may be lifesaving in patients with massive exsanguinating bleeding. However, in most cases hemorrhage is not so severe, and in such circumstances the safest and most effective transfusion strategy is controversial.
Restricted transfusion strategies may be appropriate in some settings. Controlled trials have shown that for critically ill patients, a restrictive transfusion strategy is at least as effective as a liberal strategy, while substantially reducing the use of blood supplies. Observational studies and small controlled trials have suggested that Varizen 1 EL may be harmful in patients with hypovolemic anemia, 6,7 even in those with gastrointestinal bleeding.
We performed a randomized, Varizen 1 EL, controlled trial in which we assessed whether a restrictive threshold for red-cell transfusion in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding was safer and more effective than a liberal transfusion strategy that was based on the threshold recommended in guidelines at the time the study was designed.
From June through Decemberwe consecutively enrolled patients with gastrointestinal bleeding who were admitted to Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau in Varizen 1 EL. Written informed consent was obtained from all the patients or their next of kin, Varizen 1 EL, and the trial was Varizen 1 EL by the institutional ethics committee at the hospital.
The protocolincluding the statistical analysis plan, is available with the full text of this article at NEJM. No commercial support was involved in the study. All the authors vouch for the integrity and the accuracy of the analysis and for the fidelity of the study to the Varizen 1 EL. No one who is not an author contributed to the manuscript.
Patients older than 18 years of age who had hematemesis or bloody nasogastric aspiratemelena, or both, as confirmed by the hospital staff, were considered for inclusion, Varizen 1 EL.
Patients were excluded if they declined to undergo a blood transfusion. Additional exclusion criteria were massive exsanguinating bleeding; an acute coronary syndrome, symptomatic peripheral vasculopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or transfusion within the previous 90 days; a recent history of trauma or surgery; lower gastrointestinal bleeding; a previous decision on the part of the attending physician that the patient should avoid specific medical therapy; and a clinical Rockall score of 0 with a hemoglobin level higher than 12 g per deciliter.
The Rockall score is a system for assessing the risk of further bleeding or death among patients with gastrointestinal bleeding; scores range from 0 to 11, with a score of 2 or lower indicating Varizen 1 EL risk and scores of 3 to 11 indicating increasingly greater risk. Immediately after admission, patients were randomly assigned to a restrictive transfusion strategy or a liberal transfusion strategy.
Randomization was performed with the use of computer-generated random numbers, with the group assignments placed in sealed, consecutively numbered, opaque envelopes. Randomization was stratified according to the presence or absence of liver cirrhosis and was performed in blocks of four. Cirrhosis was diagnosed according to clinical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings, Varizen 1 EL.
In the restrictive-strategy group, the hemoglobin threshold for transfusion was 7 g per deciliter, with a target range for the post-transfusion hemoglobin level of 7 to 9 g per deciliter. Varizen 1 EL the liberal-strategy group, the hemoglobin threshold for transfusion was 9 g per deciliter, with a target range for the post-transfusion hemoglobin level of 9 to 11 g per deciliter. In both groups, 1 unit of red cells was transfused initially; the hemoglobin level was assessed after the transfusion, and an additional unit was transfused if the hemoglobin level was below the threshold value, Varizen 1 EL.
The transfusion protocol was applied until the patient's discharge from the hospital or death. The protocol allowed for a transfusion to be administered any time symptoms or signs related to anemia developed, massive bleeding occurred during follow-up, or surgical intervention was required. Only prestorage leukocyte-reduced units of packed red cells were used for transfusion. Hemoglobin levels were measured after admission and again every 8 hours during the first 2 days and every day thereafter.
Hemoglobin levels were also assessed when further bleeding was suspected. All the patients underwent emergency gastroscopy within the first 6 hours. When endoscopic examination disclosed a nonvariceal lesion with active arterial bleeding, a nonbleeding visible vessel, or an adherent clot, patients underwent endoscopic therapy with injection of adrenaline plus multipolar electrocoagulation or application of endoscopic clips.
Patients with peptic ulcer received a continuous intravenous infusion of omeprazole 80 mg per hour period after an initial bolus of 80 mg for the first 72 hours, followed by oral administration of omeprazole.
Bleeding esophageal varices were also treated with band ligation or with sclerotherapy, and gastric varices with injection of cyanoacrylate. In patients with variceal bleeding, portal pressure was measured within the first 48 hours and again 2 to 3 days later to assess the Varizen 1 EL of the transfusion strategy on portal hypertension. Portal pressure was estimated with the use of the hepatic venous pressure gradient HVPGas described elsewhere, Varizen 1 EL.
The primary outcome measure was the rate of death from any cause within the first 45 days. Secondary outcomes included the rate of further bleeding and the rate of in-hospital complications. Further bleeding was considered to indicate therapeutic failure; if the bleeding involved nonvariceal lesions, the patient underwent repeat endoscopic therapy or emergency surgery, Varizen 1 EL, whereas in the case of further variceal bleeding, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting TIPS was considered.
Complications were defined as any untoward events that necessitated active therapy or prolonged hospitalization, Varizen 1 EL. Side effects were considered to be severe if the health or safety of the patient was endangered.
The statistical analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Standard tests were used for comparisons of proportions and means. Continuous variables are expressed as means and standard deviations, Varizen 1 EL. Actuarial probabilities were calculated with the use of the Kaplan—Meier method and were compared with the use of the log-rank test.
A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to compare the two transfusion-strategy groups with respect to the primary and secondary end points, Varizen 1 EL, with adjustment for baseline risk factors see the Supplementary Appendixavailable at NEJM.
Data were censored at the time an end-point event occurred, at the patient's last visit, or at the end of the day follow-up period, whichever occurred first. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed to assess the efficacy of transfusion strategies according to the source of bleeding lesions related to portal hypertension or peptic ulcer.
All P values are two-tailed, Varizen 1 EL. Calculations were performed with the use of the SPSS statistical package, version During the study period, patients were admitted to the hospital for gastrointestinal bleeding and were screened.
Of these, 41 declined to participate and were excluded; among the reasons for exclusion were exsanguinating bleeding requiring transfusion in 39 patients and a low risk of rebleeding patients Figure 1 Figure 1 Screening, Randomization, and Follow-up.
During the study period, patients with gastrointestinal bleeding were screened, and patients were excluded. The reasons for exclusion included massive exsanguinating bleeding requiring transfusion before randomization 39 patients and a low risk of rebleeding patients. A low risk of rebleeding was defined as a clinical Rockall score of 0 and hemoglobin levels higher than 12 g per deciliter. The Rockall score is a system for assessing the risk of further bleeding or death among patients with gastrointestinal bleeding; scores range from 0 to 11, with higher scores indicating greater risk.
Patients were also excluded if they declined blood transfusion 14 patients ; other exclusion criteria were an acute coronary syndrome 58symptomatic peripheral vasculopathy 12stroke or transient ischemic attack 7Varizen 1 EL, or transfusion 10 within the previous 90 Nelke Varizen lower gastrointestinal bleeding 51 ; pregnancy 3 ; a recent history of trauma or surgery 41 ; a decision by the attending physician that the patient should avoid medical therapy 9 ; or inclusion in this study within the previous 90 days or inclusion more than twice A total of patients underwent randomization, of whom 32 were withdrawn: A total of patients underwent randomization and 32 withdrew or were withdrawn by the investigators after randomization see Figure 1 for detailsleaving patients in Varizen 1 EL restrictive-strategy group and in the liberal-strategy group for the intention-to-treat analysis.
The baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups Table 1 Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the Patients. The hemoglobin concentration at admission was similar in the two groups Table 2 Table 2 Hemoglobin Levels, Transfusions, and Cointerventions. The percentage of patients in whom the lowest hemoglobin level was less than 7 g per deciliter was higher in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group.
The hemoglobin concentration at 45 days was similar in the two groups. The percentage of patients who received a transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma, the percentage of patients who received a transfusion of platelets, Varizen 1 EL, and the total amount of fluid administered were similar in the two groups. Mortality at 45 days was significantly lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group: Panel A shows the Kaplan—Meier estimates of the troksevazin bei der Behandlung von Krampfadern survival rate in the two groups.
The probability of survival was significantly higher in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group. The gray arrows indicate the day on which data from a patient were censored. The inset shows the same data on an enlarged y axis. The risk of death was virtually unchanged after adjustment for baseline risk factors for death hazard ratio with restrictive strategy, 0.
Among all patients with cirrhosis, the risk of death was slightly lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group Figure 2. In the subgroup of patients with cirrhosis and Child—Pugh class A or B disease, the risk of death was significantly lower among patients in the restrictive-strategy group than among those in the liberal-strategy group, whereas in the subgroup of patients with cirrhosis and Child—Pugh class Varizen Bakuleva disease, the risk was similar in the two groups.
Among patients with bleeding from a peptic ulcer, the risk of death was slightly lower with the restrictive strategy than with the liberal strategy. Death was due to unsuccessfully controlled bleeding in 3 patients 0. Death was caused by complications of treatment in 3 patients 2 in the liberal-strategy group and 1 in the restrictive-strategy group.
In the remaining 44 patients 19 in the restrictive-strategy group and 25 in the liberal-strategy grouphemorrhage was controlled and death was due to associated diseases. The rate of further bleeding was significantly lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group: The risk of further bleeding was significantly lower with the restrictive strategy Varizen 1 EL adjustment for baseline risk factors for further bleeding hazard ratio, 0. In addition, the length of hospital stay was shorter in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group.
In the subgroup of patients with cirrhosis, the risk of further bleeding was lower with the restrictive transfusion strategy than with the liberal transfusion strategy among patients with Child—Pugh class A or B disease and was similar in the two groups among patients with Child—Pugh class C disease Table 3.
Rescue therapy with balloon tamponade or with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was required less frequently in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group.
A baseline hepatic hemodynamic study was performed in 86 patients in the restrictive-strategy group and in 89 in the liberal-strategy group, Varizen 1 EL, and it was repeated 2 Behandlung von Krampfadern Bewertungen Moskau 3 days later in 74 and 77 patients, respectively, to assess changes.
Patients in the liberal-strategy group had a significant increase in the mean hepatic venous pressure gradient between the first hemodynamic study and the second from There was no significant change in mean hepatic venous pressure gradient in the restrictive-strategy group during that interval. Among patients with bleeding from a peptic ulcer, there was a trend toward a lower risk of further bleeding in the restrictive-strategy group Table 3.
Transfusion reactions and Varizen 1 EL events, mainly pulmonary edema, occurred more frequently in the liberal-strategy group Table 3, Varizen 1 EL. The Varizen 1 EL of other adverse events, such as acute kidney injury or bacterial infections, Varizen 1 EL, did not differ significantly between the groups Table S5 in the Supplementary Appendix.
We found that among patients with severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the outcomes were significantly improved with a restrictive Varizen 1 EL strategy, in which the hemoglobin threshold was 7 g per deciliter, as compared with a liberal transfusion strategy, Varizen 1 EL, in which the hemoglobin threshold was 9 g per deciliter.
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Wie entsteht das Plattenepithelcarcinom der Haut? Wie kann der weisse Hautkrebs behandelt werden? Das Spinaliom ist die zweithäufigste Form von weissem Hautkrebs. Spinaliome entstehen normalerweise aus Vorstadien, den sogenannten solaren Keratosen. In selteneren Fällen kann der weisse Hautkrebs auch auf andere Art entstehen: Wird der Hautarzt bei Sonnenwarzen nicht tätig, so kann nach unterschiedlich langer Zeit daraus der sog. Spinaliom, spinozelluläres Karzinom entstehen.
Dies ist der typische "Sonnen-Hautkrebs" - er hat aber überhaupt nichts mit dem gefürchteten "schwarzen Varizen 1 EL Melanom zu tun. Häufig entstehen solche Sonnenschäden auch an den Lippen; man spricht dann von aktinischer Cheilitis eng: Diese Hautwucherungen entstehen aus den "Stachelzellen" der oberflächlichen Haut, wenn die Zellteilung gestört wurde. Häufigste Ursachen sind neben einem Anlagefaktor langdauernde Sonnenbestrahlung. Besonders Varizen 1 EL sind hellhäutige Menschen, die zum Sonnenbrand neigen.
Bei aktinischen Keratosen sieht man im Mikroskop eine Vermehrung atypischer "veränderter" Keratinozyten; beim Spinaliom sind diese Zellen bösartig geworden und fressen sich in das umliegende Gewebe; manchmal streuen sie auch über die Lymphe und das Blut in den Körper Metastasierung. Sonnenwarzen sind harmlose, gutartige Veränderungen.
Stachelzellkrebs ist Krebs - glücklicherweise aber eine mässig aggressive Tumorart. Zuerst wuchert der Tumor langsam am Ort des Entstehens. Allein in Deutschland sind nach neuesten Varizen 1 EL über 10 Millionen Menschen von aktinischen Keratosen betroffen, Varizen 1 EL. In Amerika leidet jeder 4. Mensch über 30 darunter. Innerhalb von 10 Jahren entwickelt sich wiederum aus jeder 4.
Die Inhaltsstoffe von Pfeifen, Zigaretten und Zigarren erhöhen das Risiko sehr stark, irgendwann einmal einen Lippenkrebs zu entwickeln. Lippenkrebs meist der Unterlippe ist der häufigste Krebs der Mundhöhle und betrifft etwa 2 von Menschen.
Leider streut der weisse Hautkrebs der Lippen schneller als Varizen 1 EL anderer Körperregionen, weshalb rasche Behandlung wichtig ist. Gegen Sonnenwarzen stehen uns viele Behandlungsmöglichkeiten zur Verfügung. Einerseits können wir sie operativ entfernen: Andererseits können wir sie oft ohne Operation heilen: Spinaliome werden meist mit sicherem Abstand in örtliche Betäubung herausgeschnitten, denn sie können unter Umständen auch streuen, Varizen 1 EL.
Der entfernte Tumor wird dann mikroskopisch untersucht. So kann ich Ihnen sicher sagen, ob alles bösartige Gewebe entfernt worden ist. In bestimmten Situationen kann es sinnvoller sein, das Spinaliom durch Bestrahlung, Vereisung oder Chemotherapie zu zerstören.
Zur Vorbeugung besteht die Möglichkeit, nach der Operation eine naturheilkundliche Krebs-Nachbehandlung durchzuführen. Dies Varizen 1 EL nicht dringend notwendig, aber unter Umständen sinnvoll, um "auf der sicheren Seite" zu sein.
Wir werden Sie gerne diesbezüglich beraten. Manche Menschen versuchen, ihr Spinaliom mit Hausmitteln zu behandeln, Varizen 1 EL. Davon kann man nur abraten, Varizen 1 EL, da falsch behandelte Spinaliome streuen können Metastasen - man kann daran sogar sterben. Viele Menschen fürchten noch immer, dass gerade erst durch die Operation ein aggressiver Hautkrebs entstehen könnte.
Dieser Glaube stammt aus alten Zeiten: Oft starben sie deshalb kurze Zeit nach der unausweichlichen Operation. Der schlimme Verlauf war aber nicht durch die Behandung bedingt, sondern dadurch, dass die Behandlung viel zu spät eingesetzt hatte. Zahlreiche wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen haben bewiesen, dass eine möglichst frühzeitige Behandlung von Sonnenschäden die beste Heilungschance bietet. Die Operation selbst löst keine Tochtergeschwülste aus und macht den Krebs keinesfalls "wild".
Eine alleinige Varizen 1 EL Krebsbehandlung ist aus ärztlicher Sicht heute eindeutig abzulehnen, da die Methoden der Schulmedizin hier sicher, gut verträglich und wirksam heilen können. Diese Seiten dienen der Information unserer Patienten, Varizen 1 EL.
Jede Vervielfältigung, auch ausschnittweise, ist nur für den persönlichen Gebrauch gestattet. Öffnungszeiten, Anfahrt Über uns Witze?
Gerne untersuchen und behandeln wir Ihr Spinaliom in unserer Praxis.
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Figure 1 Screening, Randomization, and Follow-up. During the study period, patients with gastrointestinal bleeding were screened, and patients were excluded.
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Krankenhaus Varel: St. Johannes-Hospital gemeinnützige GmbH, Varel, Bleichenpfad 9, Tel.: / Informationen für Patienten, Ärzte, Einweiser und.
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*Ohne rechtzeitige Absage können wir keinem anderen Patienten den Termin vergeben und es entsteht der Praxis ein unnötiger Schaden. Bei verspäteter Absage stellen.
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Spinaliom – Stachelzellkrebs: Was sind Spinaliome? Wie entsteht das Plattenepithelcarcinom der Haut? Wie kann der weisse Hautkrebs behandelt werden?
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Melasse aus Zuckerrohr: Gesund durch wertvolle Inhaltsstoffe. Ein vielseitiges Gesundheits- und Heilmittel zur Vorsorge u. Behandlungsunterstützung z.B. bei Krebs.